Walt Disney & Ub Iwerks (1927)

Trolley Troubles is a 1927 animated short subject film, produced by Charles Mintz and George Winkler and directed by Walt Disney. Since Poor Papa, the cartoon is noted for being the first appearance of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, a character that Disney and Ub Iwerks created for Universal Pictures and Charles B. Mintz.

In January 1927, Winkler Pictures head Charles Mintz told Disney and Iwerks to create a cartoon character they could sell to Universal Pictures. Universal wanted to re-enter the cartoon business and needed a character of it’s own. Disney began working on both the character and the films shortly after he moved his studio to Hyperion Avenue.

Disney opted to make the character a rabbit at the suggestion of Carl Laemmle, Universal’s founder. Universal’s publicity department chose the name of the character by drawing it out of a hat filled with slips of paper with different names on them. An early press release from Universal Weekly called the character “Oswald, the Welsh Rabbit.”

The first Oswald cartoon, Poor Papa, was poorly received by the Universal executives and Mintz. Universal initially did not distribute it to theaters. Disney and Iwerks created a younger and neater Oswald for their next cartoon, Trolley Troubles. It was well-received and Universal released it to theaters on September 5, 1927. Universal continued to push advertising for the character.

As time passed, Disney feared that Mintz would forgo renewal of the contract, partly due to Iwerks informing Disney that George Winkler, at the behest of Mintz, had been going behind Disney’s back during pick-up runs for Oswald reels and hiring away his animators. Eventually, Walt traveled with his wife Lillian to New York to find other potential distributors for his studio’s cartoons, including Fox and MGM, prior to meetings with Mintz. As Walt later recalled, he placed two Oswald prints under one arm and—feeling “like a hick”—marched “one half-block north” on Broadway to MGM to visit Fred Quimby and showcase his studio’s work on the series. During this period, Walt and Lillian attended the premiere of the Oswald short Rival Romeos, which debuted at the Colony on 53rd and Broadway.

In the spring of 1928, Disney traveled to New York City in hopes of negotiating a more profitable contract with his producer Charles Mintz. But as economic problems were apparent at the time, Mintz figured Disney should settle for a 20% cut, although large turnarounds were promised if the studio’s finances showed considerable growth. While most of his fellow animators left for Mintz’s studio, Disney decided to quit working on the Oswald cartoons. On his long train ride home, he came up with an idea to create another character and retain the rights to it. Walt recalled most of what had happened in an interview and some stories claim the copyright to the character had been “lost” to Winkler/Universal.

Disney and Iwerks would go on to develop a new cartoon in secret, starring a new character called Mickey Mouse. The first Mickey Mouse cartoon to be filmed was Plane Crazy in the summer of 1928, but it was produced as a silent film and held back from release. The first Mickey Mouse film with a synchronized soundtrack, Steamboat Willie, reached the screen that fall and became a major hit, eclipsing Oswald.

In early cartoons, Oswald was very similar to the early incarnations of Mickey Mouse, that being the mischievous but well-meaning character made popular among cartoons in the 1920s. He was energetic, inventive, adventurous and almost always caused trouble, but found his way out through cunning and wit. Oswald loved to play and make others laugh, but despite his flaws, he has morals and always tries to do the right thing. His personality traits were something never seen at the time, as most cartoon stars had no personality, and he favored the new “emotion” gag over slapstick.

In his current revival, Oswald is portrayed as more aggressive, serious, and short-tempered than Mickey, though he does have a sense of fun and humor. Oswald is not welcoming towards strangers and even comes across as spiteful towards people he doesn’t trust. He is very brave, but overconfident, which makes Oswald impulsive and bordering to the point that Oswald can be ignorant and ultimately fumble. Ironically, despite having the moniker of “lucky,” Oswald is prone to bad luck as much as good luck, which has led him into many unfortunate situations often caused by his own overconfidence — he can only escape from these by his own good luck.

Despite his less-appealing traits, Oswald remains fundamentally good-hearted. He is motivated by a love for adventure and heroism. A recent interview with Disney historian David Gerstein has highlighted the difference between Mickey and Oswald in terms of personality:

You might say that Mickey’s personality is a bit less inherently funny, but you still have just as much fun with him by putting him in incredible jams. Oswald … let’s put it like this: imagine Mickey if he were a little more egotistical or fallible, or imagine Bugs Bunny if he talked the talk but wasn’t as good at walking the walk.

Oswald has also been shown harboring a strong jealousy towards his “replacement” for effectively stealing his life. Some materials indicate this relationship outside of spin-off material; pictures were approved by Walt himself that depicted Mickey and Oswald meeting for the first time and support these sentiments.

With luck on his side, Oswald is willing to take risks and will attempt to do what’s best for his family and friends. Though he doesn’t appear to be, Oswald can be quite friendly if he wants to. His love for Ortensia is just as strong as Mickey’s love for Minnie.

Baobab Studios (2018)

Crow: The Legend is an exciting new animated movie starring John Legend as Crow, the most popular and admired animal in the forest with his magnificent colors and beautiful voice. But when the very first winter arrives, can Crow make the ultimate sacrifice to save his friends?

Inspired by the original Native American legend, this story of sacrifice and community features Randy Edmonds, Kiowa-Caddo tribal elder and founder of the National Urban Indian Council as Narrator, and Sarah Eagle Heart, CEO of Native Americans in Philanthropy, as Luna.

Starring John Legend, Oprah Winfrey, Constance Wu (Crazy Rich Asians), Tye Sheridan (Ready Player One), Diego Luna (Rogue One: A Star Wars Story), and Liza Koshy. Created by the director of Madagascar and the Emmy-winning animated films Invasion! and Asteroids! Executive produced by Baobab Studios, Get Lifted, and Native Americans in Philanthropy.

Two time Emmy winner, Baobab Studios is the leading VR animation studio. Our mission: Inspire you to dream by bringing out your sense of wonder. We will immerse you in fantastical worlds, introduce you to characters to fall in love with, and make you matter to these characters. Baobab was founded by Eric Darnell (Co-Director of all 4 Madagascar films and Antz!)

To learn more about Native Americans in Philanthropy visit www.nativephilanthropy.org.

Steve Cutts & Wantaways (2020)

The Turning Point explores the destruction of the environment, climate change, and species extinction from a different perspective.

After tackling screen zombies and consumerism, London artist/animator Steve Cutts turns his talents for rendering modern dilemmas in hyper-detail toward human-induced apocalypse in this devastating music video for Melbourne musician Wantaways.

Steve Cutts is an illustrator and animator based in London, England. His artwork satirises the excesses of modern society. His style is inspired by 1930s and 40s cartoons, as well as modern comic books and graphic novels.

CarlĂ­n DĂ­az (2013)

These animated illustrations are gems, showcasing the talent of Carlín Díaz, a Venezuelan graphic artist and animation director living in Paris. His portfolio covers a wide variety of art, but these videos most clearly show off his saucy, psychedelic style.

Carlin Diaz: Saucy psychedelic animation — Canadian Art Junkie

Music by L’Orange featuring Erica Lane

Animation by CarlĂ­n DĂ­az

Richard Williams & Ken Harris (1971)

A Christmas Carol is Richard Williams’s animated adaptation of Charles Dickens’s 1843 novella. The film was broadcast on U.S. television by ABC on December 21, 1971, and released theatrically soon after. In 1972, it won the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film.

Still my favorite animated adaptation of my favorite classic Christmas tale, Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol.

A Christmas Carol, based on the Classic 1843 novel written by Charles Dickens, was directed by Richard Williams and its visual style is also largely due to Ken Harris, credited as “Master Animator”. It starred Alastair Sim as the voice of Ebenezer Scrooge â€” a role Sim had previously performed in the 1951 live-action film Scrooge. Michael Hordern likewise reprised his 1951 performance as Marley’s Ghost in the same film. Michael Redgrave narrated the story and veteran animator Chuck Jones served as executive producer. Williams’ son Alexander Williams, then aged four, provided the voice for Tiny Tim.

This adaptation of A Christmas Carol has a distinctive look, created by multiple pans and zooms and by innovative, unexpected scene transitions. The visual style, which is unusually powerful, is inspired by 19th century engraved illustrations of the original story by John Leech and the pen and ink renderings by illustrator Milo Winter that graced 1930s editions of the book. The intended audience does not include young children, and the film’s bleak mood and emphasis on darkness and shadows lead some to consider it the most frightening of the many dramatizations of the Dickens classic.

Originally produced as a 1971 television special, A Christmas Carol was considered so well done that it was subsequently released theatrically, thereby rendering it eligible for Oscar consideration, and the film did go on to win the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film for 1972. Some industry insiders took issue that a short originally shown on television was given the award, and the Academy responded by changing its policy, disqualifying any future works initially shown on television.

A Betty Boop Cartoon

Fleischer Studios (1932)

Stopping the Show is a 1932 Fleischer Studios animated short, directed by Dave Fleischer. While it is not the first appearance of Betty Boop, it is the first short to be credited as a “Betty Boop Cartoon.”

Betty Boop appears on stage in a vaudeville theatre. Her act consists of imitations of real-life singers, including Helen Kane, Fanny Brice and Maurice Chevalier. The cartoon audience enthusiastically cheers and applauds.

When the short was originally released, it contained a scene showing Betty singing Helen Kane’s song “That’s My Weakness Now.” Kane, who was involved in a lawsuit over Betty’s resemblance to her, complained, and the studios were forced to remove the scene from future prints.

Clips from this short were later reused in 1934’s Betty Boop’s Rise to Fame.

Arthur Rankin, Jr. & Jules Bass (1977)

An animated adaptation of J.R.R. Tolkien’s tale of the adventures of a hobbit on a quest to regain a dwarf king’s gold. Smaug is a dragon and the main antagonist in J. R. R. Tolkien’s 1937 novel The Hobbit. He is a powerful and fearsome dragon that invaded the Dwarf kingdom of Erebor 150 years prior to the events described in the novel.

My armour is like tenfold shields, my teeth are swords, my claws spears, the shock of my tail is a thunderbolt, my wings a hurricane, and my breath death!

Smaug was a fire drake of the Third Age, considered to be the last “great” dragon to exist in Middle-earth. He was drawn towards the enormous wealth amassed by the Dwarves of the Lonely Mountain during the reign of King Thror, and laid waste to the neighboring city of Dale and captured the Lonely Mountain, driving the surviving Dwarves into exile.

For 171 years, Smaug hoarded the Lonely Mountain’s treasures to himself, staying within the mountain, until a company of Dwarves managed to enter the Lonely Mountain and awaken him from hibernation. Correctly believing that the dwarves had received assistance from the men of Lake-town in entering the Lonely Mountain, Smaug left the mountain to wreak destruction upon Lake-town, nearly destroying it before being slain by Bard the Bowman.

Ralph Bakshi (1977)

Wizards is a 1977 American animated post-apocalyptic science fantasy film about the battle between two wizards, one representing the forces of magic and one representing the forces of industrial technology. It was written, produced, and directed by Ralph Bakshi.

Wizards is notable for being the first fantasy film made by Bakshi, who was previously known only for urban films such as Fritz the Cat, Heavy Traffic, and Coonskin. It grossed $9 million theatrically from a $1.2 million budget, and has since become a cult classic.

Nick Park (1989)

Nick Park’s first Oscar winning film. A series of interviews with the animals in an English zoo. Used to open spaces and sunnier climates, they comment on accommodation, diet, and, of course, the English weather.

A humorous and thought provoking view of what animals in zoos might be thinking about their captivity and surroundings.

Julia Ocker (2019)

The little anglerfish has to go to bed. But the deep waters are full of threatening creatures.

Script & Direction: Julia Ocker

Design: Julia Ocker, Kiana Naghshineh, Christoph Horch, Paul Cichon

Technical Director: Ralf Bohde

Animatic: Elena Walf

Animation: Julia Ocker, Urte Zintler, Ina Gabriel

Sounddesign, Music: Christian Heck, Sumophonic

Funding: MFG Baden-WĂźrttemberg, MDM

Co-Production: KiKA / SWR

Production Manager: Bianca Just

Producer: Thomas Meyer-Hermann

Production: Studio Film Bilder, 2018

Chris Bailey (1995)

Featuring animation by animator Andreas Deja. It was first released in 1995 and played along with A Kid in King Arthur’s Court and A Goofy Movie in 1996. It would be the final original Mickey Mouse theatrical animated short until Get a Horse! in 2013.

Runaway Brain is a 1995 animated comedy-horror short film produced by Walt Disney. Featuring Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse, the short centers on Mickey attempting to earn enough money to pay for an anniversary gift for Minnie. 

Although receiving a controversial reception among audiences, the short was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film at the 68th Academy Awards.

In an attempt to convince Minnie that he hasn’t forgotten to buy her an anniversary present, Mickey Mouse ends up promising to take her to Hawaii. Funds being short, he applies for a job as lab assistant to the sinister Dr. Frankenollie, who happens to be searching for a donor to provide his monstrous creation with a brain.

To watch the Runaway Brain in its entirety, follow the link: https://www.bilibili.tv/en/video/2000123000

Bakshi Animation (1987)

The first ever episode of Might Mouse: The New Adventures recreated and re-imagined by Ralph Bakshi and crew.

Night On Bald Pate: Ostracised for having a bald scalp, Petey Pate turns to villainy and kidnaps Pearl to make Mouseville take him seriously.

Mouse From Another House: Lonely orphan Scrappy listens as Pearl describes Mighty Mouse’s beginnings.

Len Lye (1929)

With the screen split asymmetrically, one part in positive, the other negative, the film documents the evolution of simple celled organic forms into chains of cells then more complex images from tribal cultures and contemporary modernist concepts. The images react, interpenetrate, perhaps attack, absorb and separate, until a final symbiosis is achieved.

All of a sudden it hit me — if there was such a thing as composing music, there could be such a thing as composing motion.  After all, there are melodic figures, why can’t there be figures of motion?” 

Len Lye

This remarkable animation film was first screened by the London Film Society in 1929. Jack Ellitt’s original piano music for Tusalava has unfortunately been lost. The film imagines the beginnings of life on earth. Single-cell creatures evolve into more complex forms of life. Evolution leads to conflict, and two species fight for supremacy. The title is a Samoan word which suggests that things go full circle.  In this film Lye based his style of animation partly on the ancient Aboriginal art of Australia. Tusalava is unique as a film example of what art critics describe as “modernist primitivism”. In contrast to the Cubist painters (who were influenced by African art), Lye drew upon traditions of indigenous art from his own region of the world (New Zealand, Australia and Samoa).

Despite the interest generated by his first film, Tusalava (1929), the early 1930s were a difficult time for artist and animator Len Lye. A series of projects were abandoned through lack of funding, and he supported himself by designing book jackets. By 1934 he was doing relatively menial work in the Wembley studios of Associated Sound Film Industries, while trying to convince investors to back his latest project with his long-time friend and collaborator, Jack Ellitt, provisionally titled Quicksilver. Lye had already produced dozens of set and costume designs for this ambitious science-fiction musical comedy but, although an American producer eventually expressed interest, the film that emerged bore little relation to the original concept, and neither Lye nor Ellitt benefited financially.

In the meantime, Lye turned his attention to puppet animation. He scraped together enough funding and borrowed equipment to produce a three-minute short featuring his self-made monkey, singing and dancing to ‘Peanut Vendor’, a 1931 jazz hit for Red Nichols. The two foot high monkey had bolted, moveable joints and some 50 interchangeable mouths to convey the singing. To get the movements right, Lye filmed his new wife, Jane, a prize-winning rumba dancer. Ellitt assisted in synchronising the animation with the music.

Lye hoped to use the film to interest advertisers, but again had no success. However, on the strength of the film the head of the newly established Shell Film Unit, Jack Beddington, was later persuaded by Lye’s friend Humphrey Jennings to commission Lye to make a short animated advertising film, The Birth of the Robot (1935).

Ray Harryhausen was an American filmmaker best known for his pioneering use of stop-motion animation effects. Unfortunately, he died May 7, 2013 in London, England at the age of 93.

Harryhausen grew up in Los Angeles, acquiring a love of dinosaurs and fantasy at a young age. His parents encouraged his interests in films and in models, and he was inspired by the cinematic effects in such movies as The Lost World (1925) and King Kong (1933). After seeing the latter, he began experimenting with marionettes and stop-motion animation, making short films in his parents’ garage. At about age 18 he met noted animator Willis O’Brien, with whom he would later work on several projects. On O’Brien’s advice to refine his abilities, Harryhausen enrolled in art and anatomy courses at Los Angeles City College and later in film courses at the University of Southern California. It was around this time that he began developing the technique that became known as “Dynamation,” used to make it appear that actors on film are interacting with animated models.

In 1940 Harryhausen landed his first animating job, working for producer George Pal on a number of “Puppetoons”—short films that animated puppets by using a type of stop-motion. He subsequently served in the U.S. Army, where he worked with director Frank Capra on propaganda films for the war effort. After being discharged in 1946, Harryhausen created a series of short nursery rhyme-based films that he distributed to schools. He was soon contacted by O’Brien to help on Mighty Joe Young (1949), an adventure drama featuring an enormous ape, in the style of King Kong. The film, for which Harryhausen did much of the animation, received an Academy Award for special effects. Harryhausen’s work on The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms (1953), which was based on a story by his friend Ray Bradbury, caught the attention of producer Charles Schneer, with whom he would work on the majority of his films advertisement

Near the Arctic Circle, an atomic bomb is detonated. This fearsome experiment disturbs the sleep of a giant rhedosaurus encased in ice for more than 100-million years and sends it southward on a destructive, deadly rampage. The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms is a film of firsts. It spawned a new era of atomic-age creature features. It was the first screen adaptation of a work by fantasy fiction titan Ray Bradbury. And it marked the first time Ray Harryhausen had control over special effects. Harryhausen came up with a fantastic creature (constructed at full scale, all 50 tons of it) that swims down from the north to run amok through New York City before being conquered in a spectacular Coney Island roller coaster finale. Take a classic ride and unleash the Beast!

Harryhausen contributed effects to more than a dozen movies, including It Came from Beneath the Sea (1955), Mysterious Island (1961), and Hammer Films’ One Million Years B.C.(1966). He was well known for the Sinbad films: The 7th Voyage of Sinbad (1958), his first colour feature; The Golden Voyage of Sinbad (1973); and Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger (1977). He also created the special effects for the star-studded Clash of the Titans (1981), which was remade with animatronic and computer effects in 2010. Though he effectively retired from animation in the mid-1980s, Harryhausen continued to work on small projects into the 21st century. In 1992 he received the Gordon E. Sawyer Award for technical contributions from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. His published works include Film Fantasy Scrapbook (1972) and the autobiography An Animated Life: Adventures in Fantasy (2003; cowritten with Tony Dalton).

Matt Groening & David Silverman (2012)

Maggie Simpson in “The Longest Daycare” is a 2012 American traditionally animated 3D comedy short film based on the animated television series The Simpsons. In the film, Maggie Simpson is enrolled at a new daycare facility where she squares off with the foul-tempered Baby Gerald when she befriends a caterpillar. The short originated with Simpsons producer James L. Brooks, who enlisted long-time veteran of the series David Silverman to direct the film. The picture was written by producers Brooks, Al Jean, David Mirkin, writers Michael Price and Joel H. Cohen, as well as show creator Matt Groening.

The film premiered on July 13, 2012, where it was attached to screenings of the 20th Century Fox release Ice Age: Continental Drift. The film is the second Simpsons theatrical release. The short was re-released on February 15, 2013 and played before the film Life of Pi in selected theaters in USA. Reception has been positive, praising the storytelling and animation. The film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film in 2013, losing to Paperman.

Chuck Jones (1948)

After Bugs Bunny had begun to outwit Yosemite Sam â€“ the creation of the senior director Friz Freleng â€“ director Chuck Jones decided to create the opposite type of character, one who was calm and soft-spoken, but whose actions were legitimately dangerous. Marvin the Martian was the result, and made his debut in 1948’s Haredevil Hare. Marvin is the quietest of the Looney Tunes villains, and is very clever and competent in general. However, he is also comedic.

Marvin’s design was based on a style of armor usually worn by the Roman god Mars. “That was the uniform that Mars wore — that helmet and skirt. We thought putting it on this ant-like creature might be funny. But since he had no mouth, we had to convey that he was speaking totally through his movements. It demanded a kind of expressive body mechanics.”

Marvin was never named in the original shorts – he was referred to as the Commander of Flying Saucer X-2 in The Hasty Hare in 1952. However, in 1979, once the character apparently attracted merchandising interest, the name “Marvin” was seen in The Bugs Bunny Road Runner Movie—more than 30 years after his birth!

Felix Colgrave (2014)

A film made by Felix Colgrave with elephants in it, and a bunch of other things too. This was his third year film at RMIT University, Bachelor of Animation and Interactive Media, and the winner of Best Australian Film at MIAF 2014.

Felix Colgrave is an Australian director, animator, cartoonist, filmmaker, artist, and musician. Distribution of Colgrave’s work has, to date, been focused on YouTube where his channel has 1.38 million subscribers. Colgrave mainly uses Adobe After Effects for his animations.

David Hand (1936)

Mickey’s Polo Team is a 1936 American animated short film produced by Walt Disney Productions and released by United Artists. The cartoon features of game of polo played between four Disney characters, led by Mickey Mouse, and four cartoon versions of real-life movie stars — Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, Harpo Marx, and Charlie Chaplin. It was directed by David Hand and was first released on January 4, 1936. The film was inspired by Walt Disney’s personal love of polo.

Animated by Art Babbitt, Johnny Cannon, Paul Hopkins, Dick Huemer, Grim Natwick, & Bill Roberts

Francesco Guido (1946)

An Italian animation masterpiece.

L’ultimo SciusciĂ  is an italian cartoon produced in 1946 by Alfa Circus, an animation studio founded after the end of WWII by Gibba (pseudonym of Francesco Maurizio Guido), who also was the director of this short, which is remarkable because it represents the only example of an animated neorealistic film.

Gibba, who had formerly worked as an animator, for his first work as a cartoon director, attempted to produce a short that could differ from the rest of Italian animated productions of the time, which were specifically targeted to children, trying to show that animation was a medium that could address also to a more adult and wide audience. For his first cartoon, he got the inspiration from the neorealistic movies produced in Italy during the post-WWII period, characterized by the depiction of the most poor and difficult situations in Italy as a result of the tragedies of war. L’ultimo SciusciĂ  is the story of a little boy selling contraband cigarettes at street corners, constantly struggling against the difficulties of living a poor life. His only friend is his faithful little dog, Matteo, that represents a conjunction of this cartoon to the formula of many other cartoons, with a main character and his four-legged pal.

This cartoon constitutes a transition between the classic cartoony style and the more “mature” style that Gibba was trying to introduce in the animated medium, with an interesting alternation of humorous scenes and serious (and often sad) themes.

Steven Spielberg (1998)

Steven Spielberg presents Toonsylvania, an animated television series which ran for two seasons in 1998 on the Fox Kids Network block in its first season, then was moved to Monday afternoons from September 14, 1998 until January 18, 1999, when it was cancelled.

Gary K. Wolf (1981)


I recently had this wonderful Roger Rabbit trilogy signed by the original creator of Roger Rabbit himself, Gary K. Wolf. He is one of the kindest and most down-to-Earth artists I have ever had the pleasure of talking to.

You can find out more about Gary and his works by visiting his website at
https://garywolf.com/ and by visiting his Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1498857407.

For Gary K. Wolf, a simple philosophy of believing in an idea and seeing it through – whether it be a blue cow or a madcap rabbit – paid off. “I color cows blue,” he says, “and make people happy! That’s my fondest childhood dream come true.”

Gary K. Wolf is an American author. He is best known as the author of Who Censored Roger Rabbit?, which was adapted into the hit feature-length film Who Framed Roger Rabbit?

Joel Silver (2003)

The success of Who Framed Roger Rabbit? rekindled an interest in the Golden Age of American animation, and sparked the modern animation scene. In 1991, Walt Disney Imagineering began to develop Mickey’s Toontown for Disneyland, based on the Toontown that appeared in the film. The attraction also features a ride called Roger Rabbit’s Car Toon Spin. Three theatrical animated shorts were also produced: Tummy Trouble, played in front of Honey, I Shrunk the Kids; Roller Coaster Rabbit was shown with Dick Tracy; and Trail Mix-Up was included with A Far Off Place.The film also inspired a short-lived comic-book and video-game spin-offs, including two PC games, the Japanese version of The Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle (which features Roger instead of Bugs), a 1989 game released on the Nintendo Entertainment System, and a 1991 game released on the Game Boy.

In December 2016, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”.

The film is based on Gary K. Wolf’s 1981 novel Who Censored Roger Rabbit?

Raoul J. Raoul (1988)

Somethin’s Cookin is a 1988 animation film in Who Framed Roger Rabbit that opens the movie. In it, Roger is given the task of babysitting Baby Herman or risk being “sent back to the science lab”. From his crib, Baby Herman spots a cookie jar on top of the refrigerator and promptly escapes his crib into the kitchen. Roger tries to stop him as he wanders into danger.

Norman McLaren (1971)

Synchromy is a 1971 National Film Board of Canada visual music film by Norman McLaren utilizing graphical sound. To produce the film’s musical soundtrack, McLaren photographed rectangular cards with lines on them. He arranged these shapes in sequences on the analog optical sound track to produce notes and chords. He then reproduced the sequence of shapes, colorized, in the image portion of the film, so that audiences see the shapes that they are also hearing, as sound.

McLaren had experimented with this technique for creating notes through patterns of stripes on the soundtrack area of the film in the 1950s, working with Evelyn Lambart. Their technique was based on earlier work in graphical sound by German pioneer Rudolf Pfenninger and Russian Nikolai Voinov.

The creation of Synchromy was documented by Gavin Millar in 1970 in a film called The Eye Hears, The Ear Sees. In McLaren’s production notes, he stated that “Apart from planning and executing the music, the only creative aspect of the film was the ‘choreographing’ of the striations in the columns and deciding on the sequence and combinations of colours.”
The film received eight awards, including a Special Jury Mention at the Annecy International Animated Film Festival.