Alexandre Heboyan & Benoît Philippon (2014)

Mune: Guardian of the Moon is a 2014 French 3D computer-animated adventure fantasy film directed by Benoît Philippon and Alexandre Heboyan and written by Jérôme Fansten and Benoît Philippon. Set in an imaginary world, the movie tells the adventure of a small creature who must recover the stolen Sun. The film was made with computer graphics and 3D stereoscopy, and it features the voices of Michael Gregorio, Omar Sy, and Izïa Higelin.

Fleischer Studios (1934)

Ha! Ha! Ha! is a 1934 Fleischer Studio Betty Boop animated short film featuring Koko the Clown.

This is a partial remake of the 1924 Koko animated short, The Cure. It’s also Koko’s last theatrical appearance.

Max Fleischer deployed a number of techniques in the service of his anarchic cinematic vision, among them rotoscoping, which he patented in 1917; integrating live action shots; and using still photographs as animation backgrounds to create the illusion of cartoon characters inhabiting a real-world space, as in the opening scene of the astounding Betty Boop short Ha! Ha! Ha! (1934). The most technologically ornate item in Fleischer’s toolbox was the setback camera.

The setback camera is often confused with Disney’s multiplane camera. Both systems evolved somewhat contemporaneously, and both create the illusion of dimensional depth, but functionally they have little in common. The setback rig consists of a forced-perspective, miniature set mounted on a turntable, serving as background to the cel art held in a vertical glass platen, and a horizontal animation camera. The turntable is rotated incrementally behind the cels, creating the effect of a “tracking shot” — the 2D animated character, in a side-view walk cycle, traverses a realistically proportioned (but still recognizably Fleischeresque) 3D environment which moves perspectivally across the background.

The setback camera.
The Fleischer brothers working on the setback camera.

Bill Kroyer (1988)

Technological Threat is a 1988 American animated short made by Brian Jennings and Bill Kroyer and was produced by Kroyer Films. It was an example of early computer animation, integrated with traditional animation, and is itself an allegory for the threat computer animation represented to traditional animators at the time. The robots and backgrounds were drawn based on computer-generated 3D models, while the dogs and wolves were drawn by hand.

Matthew O’Callaghan (2012)

Daffy’s Rhapsody is a 2012 3D computer-animated Looney Tunes short film featuring the characters Daffy Duck and Elmer Fudd. Directed by Matthew O’Callaghan and written by Tom Sheppard, the film is an adaptation of the song of the same name which was sung by Mel Blanc and recorded in the 1950s by Capitol Records.

Elmer Fudd goes to see an anti-duck hunting musical starring Daffy Duck to which upon seeing Daffy as the star of the show, his hunter instincts kick in and he chases Daffy throughout the short while Daffy (whilst singing to the tune of Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2) is initially unaware of Elmer but soon realizes the danger.

Starring Mel Blanc as Daffy Duck and Billy West as Elmer Fudd.